First of three parts.
KALONA, Iowa --- The sweet smell of cocoa and cooked sugar hangs in the air at Kalona Chocolates, also known as 15-year-old Whitney Hershberger's math class.
At the moment, her teachers are in the back room pouring a thick caramel and pecan mix into pans. The bespectacled teen smiles from behind a cash register at a customer walking in the front door.
Whitney is a home-school student in what now is a state with some of the most relaxed home-school laws in the country.
For advocates, rollbacks on home-school regulation in Gov. Terry Branstad's 2013 education reform bill represented a resounding victory that made Iowa a model for the nation.
For those skeptical of the absence of government oversight of curriculum, testing and teacher qualifications, the rollback smacked of hypocrisy as the public education system enters a new era of scrutiny.
"It was about creating a new level of accountability for the public," said House Speaker Kraig Paulsen, R-Hiawatha, who home-schooled his four children.
He thinks critics miss the point.
"It wasn't about empowering the Iowa Department of Education," Paulsen said.
The Iowa Department of Education did not collect information from school districts about home-school students until the 2012-13 school year. The results: Of 476,245 school-age children in Iowa, 10,732 were home-schooled, or roughly 2.3 percent.
The figure represents a little more than a third of the official estimate state officials had used since at least 2010.
The 2013 collection also marked the last time the state will be able to get such accurate figures.
The main source of information about Iowa's home-schoolers comes from a document commonly called Form A. The document is essentially a report parents fill out about students, curriculum and teachers in their home school and then turn into their local school district.
Districts were not required to file Form A with the state until the 2013 collection. But the education reform bill eliminated the requirement to fill out a Form A for some home-school parents and requires others to turn one in only if they get a letter from the school superintendent requesting the document.
"At the end of the day, this is about liberty, this is about freedom, this is about me being able to raise my children in the way that I see fit without having to get a sanction from the government upon these studies that the government thinks my children should learn," said Rep. Matt Windschitl, R-Missouri Valley.
He is an assistant majority leader in the Iowa House of Representatives. His formal education consisted of one year at a Christian school, the rest at a home school and then the U.S. Marine Corps.
The night Windschitl attached his home-school amendments to the bill --- another allowed home-school parents to teach drivers education --- it caught even the most ardent home-school advocates off guard, such as the Network of Iowa Christian Home Educators.
"(The) amendment took us at NICHE and most others by surprise," Bill Gustoff, head lobbyist for the group, would later write in the organization's quarterly magazine.
Kimberly Ehlers is a home-school parent and Christian author from rural Bennett.
"A lot of us were totally taken by surprise. It was like a dream," she said.
Some saw a double standard, though.
"This bill was about public education. It was about reforming public education, not making teachers in public schools accountable while making other people not accountable for what they teach their kids," said Rep. Sharon Steckman, D-Mason City, when the amendments were debated in February.
She ultimately voted for the legislation despite misgivings. So did every other member of the General Assembly.
A national model
"We watched what was happening in Iowa very closely," said Scott Woodruff, senior legal counsel for the Virginia-based Home School Legal Defense Association, a 30-year-old organization that serves as a legal advocate for home-school families.
"Iowa was once one of the worst states in terms of home-school rights; it's now, thanks to (the education reform bill), one of the models for the rest of the country," he said.
For students such as Whitney, the new laws likely won't change her routine much.
She gets class credit for working at the candy store, which her parents opened as a direct-to-business candy shop in 2009 then expanded into a retail storefront on the outdoor Kalona mall this year.
Her duties include running the cash register, helping in the kitchen and helping customers. Put another way, she's learning math, measurement, science, audio/video applications (she's been part of the shop's online commercials) and entrepreneurialism.
She also takes more traditional coursework at home and through the local school district's Home School Assistance Program. It's that connection with the school district that, if she continues to keep it, will keep Whitney counted in state records because using district facilities requires parents to file a Form A.
For Whitney's mother, Mattie Hershberger, home-schooling was the obvious choice for Whitney and her two older sisters, Krista and Kaylee, after her own experience at public school in Oklahoma.
"I wanted my children to be able to learn in a better environment," Mattie Hershberger said. Her husband, Lyndon Hershberger, added, "Part of it was being able to have a bigger say in the morals and values they learn."
Tammy Wawro, president of the Iowa State Education Association, said she thinks valid reasons exist for home-schooling but thinks the new law goes too far.
"I'm concerned that the accountability isn't there," she said. "I believe everyone wants the best education possible for the children, but how are we going to insure teacher quality? I think we need to have a really hard look at this and see if it's good for kids."
Home-school laws vary from state to state. Some states, including New York and Pennsylvania, have strict policies that require tracking of home-school test scores and curriculum and make other reporting requirements of parents. Other states, such as Oklahoma and New Jersey, require little oversight.
"One of your neighbors, Missouri, has had laws similar to (the education reform changes) for years," said Woodruff, "and it's worked out very well for them."
Kathy Christie, vice president of knowledge management and dissemination at the Education Commission for the States, said the trend in state legislatures across the country has generally been for more, not less, oversight of home-school programs and curriculum.
"Where we see bills come up, they are typically ones that strengthen oversight, but they don't make it," she said. "It's kind of perennial."
She said the few bills that do make it, however, are ones that end up helping home-schoolers.
"It's things like making it easier for them to apply to college, things which remove barriers that were put in place years ago," she said.
Paulsen dismisses the idea that less regulation is going to be a problem for home-school parents and students.
"I think you can have problems in any system --- public, private, parochial --- I worry about all those," Paulsen said. "Home-schooling is just another system, and it's one that works well for some families."